Drupal often gets criticized by newcomers who believe that
object-oriented programming (OOP) is always the best way to design software
architecture, and since they do not see the word "class" in the Drupal
code, it must be inferior to other solutions. In fact, it is true that
Drupal does not use many of the OOP features of PHP, but it is a mistake to
think that the use of classes is synonymous with object-oriented design.
This article will cover several of the features of Drupal from an
object-oriented perspective, so programmers comfortable with that paradigm
can begin to feel at home in the Drupal code base, and hopefully be able to
choose the right tool for the job.
Motivations for Current Design
As of version 4.6, Drupal does not use PHP'shref="http://www.php.net/manual/en/language.oop.php#keyword.class">class
construct. This decision was made for several reasons.
First, PHP's support for object-oriented constructs was much less
mature at the time of Drupal's design. Drupal was built on PHP 4, and most
of the improvements in PHP 5 relate to its href="http://www.php.net/manual/en/migration5.oop.php">object-oriented
Second, Drupal code is highly compartmentalized into modules, each of
which defines its own set of functions. The inclusion of files is handled
inside functions as well; PHP's performance suffers if all code is included
on each page call, so Drupal attempts to load as little code as possible
per request. This is a critical consideration, especially in the absence of
a PHP accelerator; the act of compiling the code accounts for more than half
of a Drupal page request. Functions are therefore defined inside other
functions in Drupal, with respect to the runtime scope. This is perfectly
legal. However, PHP does not allow the same kind of nesting with class
declarations. This means that the inclusion of files defining classes must
be "top-level," and not inside any function, which leads either to slower
code (always including the files defining classes) or a large amount of
logic in the main index.php file.
Finally, using classes to implement Drupal constructs is difficult due
to the use of some advanced object-oriented design patterns used by Drupal
itself. While this may sound self-contradictory, it should become clear in
the following discussion that the lack of certain OOP constructs such ashref="http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/ObjectiveC/Art...
"categories" in PHP would mean that implementing some Drupal mechanisms
(such as the theme
system) would be more complicated using classes than using
OOP Concepts in Drupal
Despite the lack of explicitly-declared classes in Drupal, many
object-oriented paradigms are still used in its design. There are many sets
of "essential features" that are said to be necessary to classify a system
as object-oriented; we will look at one of the href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming">more
popular definitions and examine some ways in which Drupal exhibits
There are many constructs in Drupal that fit the description of an
"object". Some of the more prominent Drupal components that could be
considered objects are modules, themes, nodes, and users.
Nodes are the basic content building blocks of a Drupal site, and
bundle together the data that makes up a "page" or "story" on a typical
site. The methods that operate on this object are defined in node.module,
usually called by the node_invoke() function. User objects similarly
package data together, bringing together information about each account on
the site, profile information, and session tracking. In both cases, the
data structure is defined by a database table instead of a class. Drupal
exploits the relational nature of its supported databases to allow other
modules to extend the objects with additional data fields.
Modules and themes are object-like as well, filling the "controller"
role in many ways. Each module is a source file, but also bundles together
related functions and follows a pattern of defining Drupal hooks.
Drupal's hook system is the basis for its interface abstraction. Hooks define the
operations that can be performed on or by a module. If a module implements
a hook, it enters into a contract to perform a particular task when the
hook is invoked. The calling code need not know anything else about the
module or the way the hook is implemented in order to get useful work done
by invoking the hook.
Like most other object-oriented systems, Drupal does not have a way of
strictly limiting access to an object's inner workings, but rather relies
on convention to accomplish this. Since Drupal code is based around
functions, which share a single namespace, this namespace is subdivided by
the use of prefixes. By following this simple convention, each module can
declare its own functions and variables without the worry of conflict with
Convention also delineates the public API of a class from its internal
implementation. Internal functions are prefixed by an underscore to
indicate that they should not be called by outside modules. For example,
_user_categories() is a private function which is subject to change without
notice, while user_save() is part of the public interface to the user
object and can be called with the expectation that the user object will be
saved to the database (even though the method of doing this is
Nodes are polymorphic in the classical sense. If a module needs to
display a node, for example, it can call node_view() on that node to get an
HTML representation. The actual rendering, though, will depend on which
type of node is passed to the function; this is directly analogous to
having the class of an object determine its behavior when a message is sent
to it. Drupal itself handles the same introspection tasks required of an
OOP language's runtime library.
Furthermore, the rendering of the node in this example can be affected
by the active theme. Themes are polymorphic in the same way; the theme is
passed a "render this node" message, and responds to it in a different way
depending on the implementation of the active theme, though the interface
Modules and themes can define whatever functions they please. However,
they can both be thought to inherit their behavior from an abstract base
class. In the case of themes, the behavior of this class is determined by
the functions in theme.inc; if a theme does not override a function defined
there, the default rendering of an interface component is used, but the
theme can instead provide its own rendering. Modules similarly have the
selection of all Drupal hooks to override at will, and may pick and choose
which ones to implement.
Design Patterns in Drupal
Much of Drupal's internal structure is more complicated than simple
inheritance and message passing, however. The more interesting features of
the system result from using established software design patterns. Many of
the patterns detailed in the seminal Gang of Four href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_Patterns">Design Patterns
book can be observed in Drupal, for instance.
If we are to think of modules and themes as objects, then they follow
the singleton pattern. In general these objects do not encapsulate data;
what separates one module from another is the set of functions it contains,
so it should be thought of as a class with a singleton instance.
Drupal makes extensive use of the decorator pattern. The polymorphism
of node objects was discussed earlier, but this is only a small piece of
the power of the node system. More interesting is the use of
hook_nodeapi(), which allows arbitrary modules to extend the behavior of
This feature allows for a wide variety of behaviors to be added to
nodes without the need for subclassing. For instance, a basic story node
has only a few pieces of associated data: title, author, body, teaser, and
a handful of metadata. A common need is for files to be uploaded and
attached to a node, so one could design a new node type that had the story
node's features plus the ability to attach files. Drupal's upload module
satisfies this need in a much more modular fashion by using nodeAPI to
grant every node that requests it the ability to have attached files.
This behavior could be imitated by the use of decorators, wrapping them
around each node object. More simply, languages that support categories,
like Objective-C, could augment the common base class of all node objects
to add the new behavior. Drupal's implementation is a simple ramification
of the hook system and the presence of node_invoke_all().
The above interaction is also similar to the use of observers in
object-oriented systems. This Observer pattern is pervasive throughout
Drupal. When a modification is made to a vocabulary in Drupal's taxonomy
system, the taxonomy hook is called in all modules that implement it. By
implementing the hook, they have registered as observers of the vocabulary
object; any changes to it can then be acted on as is appropriate.
The Drupal href="http://api.drupal.org/api/group/database">database abstraction
layer is implemented in a fashion similar to the Bridge design pattern.
Modules need to be written in a way that is independent of the database
system being used, and the abstraction layer provides for this. New
database layers can be written that conform to the API defined by the
bridge, adding support for additional database systems without the need to
modify module code.
Chain of Responsibility
request, the menu system determines whether there is a module to handle the
request, whether the user has access to the resource requested, and which
function will be called to do the work. To do this, a message is passed to
the menu item corresponding to the path of the request. If the menu item
cannot handle the request, it is passed up the chain. This continues until
a module handles the request, a module denies access to the user, or the
chain is exhausted.
Many of Drupal's hooks use the Command pattern to reduce the number of
functions that are necessary to implement, passing the operation as a
parameter along with the arguments. In fact, the hook system itself uses
this pattern, so that modules do not have to define every hook, but rather
just the ones they care to implement.
Why Not to Use Classes
The above hopefully clarifies the ways in which Drupal embodies various
OOP concepts. Why, then, doesn't Drupal move in the direction of using
classes to solve these problems in the future? Some of the reasons are
historical, and were discussed earlier. Others, though, become clearer now
that we have stepped through some of the design patterns used in
A good example is the extensibility of the theme system. A theme
defines functions for each of the interface elements it wants to display in
a special way. As noted earlier, this makes themes seem like a good
candidate to inherit from an abstract base class that defines the default
rendering of the elements.
What happens, though, when a module is added that adds a new interface
element? The theme should be able to override the rendering of this element
as well, but if a base class is defined, the new module has no way of
adding another method to that class. Complicated patterns could be set up
to emulate this behavior, but Drupal's theme architecture quite elegantly
handles the situation using its own function dispatch system. In this case
and others like it, the classes that on the surface simplify the system end
up serving to make it more cumbersome and difficult to extend.
Room for Improvement
While Drupal does reflect many object-oriented practices, there are some
aspects of OOP that could be brought to bear on the project in more
Encapsulation, while adequate in theory, is not applied consistently
enough across the code base. Modules should more rigorously define which
functions are public and which are private; the tendency right now is to
publish most functions in the public namespace even if the interface is
volatile. This problem is exacerbated by Drupal's policy of forgoing
backward compatibility in exchange for cleaner APIs whenever necessary.
This policy has led to some very good code, but would need to be excercised
much less often if better encapsulation conventions were followed.
Inheritance is also weak in the system. While, as noted above, all
modules share a common set of behavior, it is difficult to extend this to
new modules. One can create new modules easily that augment the behavior of
existing ones, but there is not a way to override just some of a module's
behavior. The impact of this can be marginalized by breaking large modules
into smaller "a la carte" bundles of functionality, so that undesired
aspects of a module may be more easily left out of the system.
Drupal is on the surface a procedural system, because it is built in a
procedural language (PHP without classes). The paradigm behind a piece of
software is not entirely dependent on its representation in code, however.
Drupal is not afraid to borrow concepts from many disparate programming
paradigms where it is convenient. A great deal of the power of Drupal comes
from its underlying relational database, and relational programming
techniques that mirror it. The fact that Drupal's work, much like that of
any web application, consists of many reactions to discrete and rapid page
requests should make the behavior of the system resonate with proponents of
event-driven programming. To an aspect-oriented programmer, the invocation
of hooks in arbitrary modules may look strikingly similar to a pointcut.
And, as should be abundantly clear by now, Drupal is no stranger to
object-oriented concepts either.